ACPWM Control for Induction Motor
This project attempts a new speed control technique for the single-phase a.c. induction motor. It presents a design of a low-cost; high-efficiency drive capable of supplying a single-phase a.c. induction motor with a PWM modulated sinusoidal voltage. The circuit operation is controlled by an 8051 family microcontroller. The device is aimed at substituting the commonly used triac phase angle control drives.
The circuit is capable of supplying a single-phase a.c. induction motor (or general a.c. inductive/resistive load) with varying a.c. voltage. The same as in triac control, the voltage applied to the load can be varied from zero to maximum value. On the other hand, it uses a pulse width modulation technique (PWM), and when compared with the phase angle control used for triacs, produces much lower high order harmonics.
Thus, it suits EMC/EMI regulations much better. Because the circuit is aimed at low-cost, low/medium-power applications, it does not use a conventional converter topology to produce the output voltage waveform. It directly modulates the mains a.c. voltage. Compared with costly converter, it requires a lower number of active and passive power components. In summary, the device attempted here takes advantage of both the low price of the phase angle control and the low harmonic content and high efficiency that we can get with standard converter topology.
The drive uses a PWM controlled MOSFET and the load in series with a bridge rectifier. This drive based on this new control technique is targeted for use in consumer and industrial products: washing machine, dishwashers, ventilators, compressors, and wherever the system cost is a consideration.